THIS 2007 STUDY BY ACT (SOLITUDE) IS JUST TWO YEARS AFTER CHEMICALS WERE APPLIED TO WOODRIDGE LAKE. THERE ARE SOME IMPORTANT FINDINGS/RECOMMENDATIONS WE URGE YOU TO REVIEW. THESE ARE:
- THEY DO NOT RECOMMEND MECHANICAL HARVESTING BECAUSE IT TENDS TO SPREAD THE WEEDS,
- THEY DO RECOMMEND DRAWDOWNS BUT ARE NOT STRONG IN TERMS OF EFFECTIVENESS,
- THEY RECOMMEND USING CHEMICALS ONLY TWO YEARS AFTER THE LAST APPLICATION, AND
- THEY NOTICE THAT MILFOIL QUICKLY RE-ESTABLISHED ITSELF AFTER CHEMICAL APPLICATION.
TO OBTAIN THIS REPORT, PLEASE CLICK BELOW:
JOURNAL OF LAKES AND RESEVOIRS
A laboratory examination of the effectiveness of a winter seasonal lake drawdown to control invasive Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum)
Thomas Lonergan, Laurence Marsicano & Mitch Wagener
Pages 381-392 | Published online: 15 Sep 2014
Download citation https://doi.org/10.1080/10402381.2014.954736
A set of laboratory studies were conducted to identify abiotic conditions associated with winter lake drawdowns that might be capable of sufficiently damaging root systems of Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) to prevent shoot regrowth. Two separate conditions prevented regrowth: exposure of roots in hydrated sediment to a temperature of −5 C (24 F) for 24 h or longer with a slow thaw over 12 h, or exposure to a sediment water content equivalent to 0.02 m3/m3 for 48 h or longer. Eurasian watermilfoil can therefore be killed by freezing at −5 C(24F) or desiccation at 4 C(39 F) in as short a time as 24–48 h, and a percent relative electrolyte leakage (% REL) of 80% or higher is sufficient to prevent shoot regrowth. The ability to regrow shoots after freezing at −5 C (24F)did not correlate to the sediment hydration level. Treatments that did not damage roots sufficiently to prevent shoot regrowth included freezing at −5 C (24F)with a 10 cm snow cover above the sediment; freezing at −5 C(24F)for 1 d with roots submerged in standing water, as would occur if exposed plants were standing in pooled water prior to freezing; and freezing at 0 C(32F) for 4 d. Treatments that resulted in partial root damage but still allowed subsequent shoot regrowth included freezing at −5 C (24F)in standing water for 4 d, and freezing at −5 C(24F) for 4 d with a rapid thawing of roots. Monitoring of temperature and moisture content of the exposed littoral zone in sequential years indicated that both damaging conditions were observed in the 2009–2010 drawdown season, but neither condition was observed in the 2010–2011 season, suggesting that the interannual variability in response to drawdowns is probably the result of variable annual climate conditions. Monitoring the exposed sediment could indicate if and when conditions suitable for killing root crowns have been satisfied and the appropriate timing to reverse the drawdown.
I THOUGHT YOU WOULD APPRECIATE REVIEWING THE STATE OF MAINE DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION’S STUDY ON WATER LEVEL MANAGEMENT. THEY ARE NEGATIVE ON DRAWDOWNS AND DO NOT SEE THEM AS EFFECTIVE FOR INVASIVE WEED MANAGEMENT NOR ICE SHORELINE PROTECTION.
TO VIEW THE ARTICLE CLICK BELOW:
http://suttontherapy.com/\"/prednisone\" Procellacor: this is a new pesticide developed to control milfoil, especially the varieties that have already developed resistance to other pesticides. Although encouraging because it supposedly is less harmful to native plants and to humans, this pesticide has only been on the market less than two years. As a result, there are few studies to show the possible harmful effects.
Anonymous public comment
Rule: Pesticide Tolerances: Florpyrauxifen-benzyl
Document ID: EPA-HQ-OPP-2016-0560-0008
Docket ID: EPA-HQ-OPP-2016-0560
Comment ID: EPA-HQ-OPP-2016-0560-0043
Comment Type: Public Submission
I am an aquatic toxicologist with a long-time specialty in evaluating non-target effects of aquatic herbicides and pesticides, and I have carefully reviewed the available environmental toxicity, environmental fate, and related data for florpyrauxifen-benzyl (Procellacor), and I wish to comment on its proposed use as an aquatic herbicide. As part of EPA’s programmatic review, Procellacor was granted Reduced Risk status by EPA under the Pesticide Registration Improvement Act (https://www.epa.gov/pria-fees/pria-overview-and-history#pria3) in 2016. This status has been granted due to favorable environmental and toxicological profiles across the board, especially in comparison to currently registered herbicides used for treatment of hydrilla, invasive watermilfoils, and other noxious plant species. Extensive reviews concluded that the overall toxicological and environmental profiles are favorable when compared to the registered alternatives (e.g. 2,4-D, endothall, triclopyr) commonly used for control of these noxious aquatic species, and that the reduction in risk pertaining to both short and long term ecological and human health were the key determining factors supporting these conclusions. Procellacor shows excellent selectivity with few or limited non-target impacts to native aquatic plants such as aquatic grasses, bulrush, cattail, pondweeds, naiads, and tapegrass. It provides an alternative mode of chemical action which is more environmentally favorable than currently registered aquatic herbicides, and would therefore be expected to help improve candidate methods as part of an overall Integrated Pest Management (IPM) approach for controlling noxious aquatic weeds. This alternative mode of action is also expected to help to prolong the effectiveness of many aquatic herbicides by offering a new rotation or combination alternative as part of herbicide resistance management strategies. EPA’s OPP has conducted a human health and ecological risk assessment for this compound, which has produced results consistent with the above conclusions. Dow AgroSciences has also concurrently applied to EPA for registration of the florpyrauxifen-benzyl active ingredient for weed control in rice paddies. Control of hydrilla and invasive watermilfoils can be achieved at in-water spot/partial treatment rates of 10 to 50 g a.i./L with Procellacor, as opposed to rates of 1,000 to 5,000 g a.i./L for endothall, 2,4-D, and triclopyr. The overall analysis considered results of mesocosm and other field studies conducted in partial site and whole pond treatments. Procellacor is quick-acting, has relatively short aqueous concentration and exposure time (CET) requirements, is systemic, and requires lower application rates than other currently registered herbicides. Moreover, it has shown short persistence in both water and sediment relative to currently registered herbicides, is species-selective, non-bioaccumulative, and has minimal non-target effects to both plant and animal species. Its effective chemical mode of action and high selectivity for aquatic invasive and noxious plants provides a significant impetus for its development and eventual registration. Procellacor has demonstrated this selective, systemic activity with relatively short CET requirements on major aquatic weed species such as hydrilla and invasive watermilfoils. Investigations on the sensitivity of numerous aquatic plant species provided verification of Procellacor’s activity on key invasives and greater tolerance by native aquatic plants tested to date. Additional research has documented high activity and different selectivity patterns relative to possible impacts to non-target aquatic vegetation compared to other currently registered, well-documented herbicides such as triclopyr, endothall, and 2,4-D. Extensive mammalian toxicity testing of Procellacor has been conducted for Procellacor, and results have shown little evidence of acute or chronic toxicity. Acute mammalian toxicity testing showed very low acute toxicity by oral or dermal routes (LD50 values > 5,000 mg/kg), with low acute toxicity reported via the inhalation route of exposure as well. In addition, Procellacor has undergone extensive ecotoxicological testing and was found to be nearly nontoxic to birds in acute oral, dietary, and reproduction studies. Similar to the mammalian testing results, no toxicity was observed for avian, fish, or other species exposed to the herbicide in acute and longterm studies, even with endpoints set at the highest concentrations well above those actually measured as part of label requirements for application of Procellacor. In summary, based on a thorough comparison of Procellacor with other commonly used aquatic herbicides, I have concluded that Procellacor is an advanced herbicide that can help to effectively control major aquatic noxious weed species without non-target effects commonly seen with currently used, broader-spectrum herbicide compounds.
July 26 2017, at 11.00 PM EST
August 22 2017, at 11.00 PM EST
July 26 2017, at 11.00 PM EST
Comment Start Date
June 27 2017, at 11.00 PM EST
Comment Due Date
July 28 2017, at 11.59 PM EST
orlistat 120 mg price in india Are herbicides safe?
The distinction between “EPA registered” and the terms “approved” or “safe” is important. Registration by the EPA does not mean that the use of the herbicide poses no risk to humans or the environment, only that for use in the U.S., the benefits have been determined to outweigh the risks. Because product use is not without risk, the EPA does not define any herbicide as “safe”. It is prudent to minimize herbicide exposure whenever possible.
When an herbicide is registered, the EPA sets use requirements to minimize risk that are given on the herbicide label. When using herbicides it is important to follow the label instructions exactly, and never use an herbicide for a use not specified on the label
Curly-leaf Pondweed (Potamogeton crispus): a Non-Native Aquatic Plant in New Jersey Waterways
Cooperative Extension Fact Sheet FS1235
Michael Haberland, Environmental and Resource Management Agent, Burlington and Camden Counties
Curly-leaf pondweed is a hardy perennial submersed aquatic plant. Attached to the lake or pond bottom by rhizomes, it can grow to reach the lake surface by midspring (Fig. 1). It has a very distinctive appearance with crinkled leaves and finely toothed edges that alternate along the lighter colored and flattened stem (Fig. 2). The oblong, light to dark green leaves are wavy resembling lasagna noodles up to 7½ cm (3 in) long. In spring, curly-leaf pondweed can produce flower spikes that rise above the surface. The small flowers are arranged in a dense terminal spike on a curved 1–2 cm (1/3–3/4 in) stalk, however the main methods of spreading are not by seed, but by asexual stem growth from the perennial rhizomes and reproduction by vegetative structures called turions. Turions are dormant buds that develop in leaf axils (the “joint ” or space where the leaf stem and the stalk of the plant come together), or are present at the tip of short branches (DiTomaso, et al. 2013). They are made up of several overlapping modified leaves resembling small greenish-brown pinecones, and are produced in great numbers by the start of summer.
Curly-leaf pondweed prefers cooler, nutrient rich, alkaline waters. It can grow in depths up to 4.5 m (15 ft), but also occurs in shallow beds in 30–60 cm (1–2 ft) of water. Curly-leaf pondweed has the competitive edge over many native plants as it tolerates low light conditions found during algal blooms and in the winter, even under lake ice.
While most aquatic plants start their yearly growth cycle in the early to mid-spring and reach their maximum growth by late summer, Curly-leaf pond weed evades competition with other aquatic plants by adopting an alternate time frame (Madsen, 2007). Curlyleaf pondweed will begin its new year’s growth in the late summer when turions start sprouting and rhizomes produce new stalks. It’s adapted to cold water and has been found actively growing under 50 cm (20 in) of ice and snow when other plants are dormant (IDNR, 2009). Curly-leaf pondweed grows better in cold water than any other aquatic plant (Madsen, 2007), so the plants may continue to grow slowly throughout the winter. This gives curly-leaf pondweed an early spring growth advantage over other aquatic plant species. Plants reach their greatest growth in late spring, and then begin to breakdown and disappear in early summer. Plant stalks disappear by mid-July after flowering and dropping seed. The main reproductive means is through the production of hundreds of turions in early summer just before the plant dies off (senescence) for the summer. As the plants start decomposing, the turions fall to the sediment where they remain dormant until cooling water temperature triggers their germination in the late summer to early fall. Turions have a very high germination rate of 60–80% and can remain viable in the sediment for several years.
This aquatic invasive species is native to Eurasia, Africa and Australia. It was first introduced into the United States in the 1800’s (Robinson, 2002) and is now reported in all the contiguous 48 states except Maine and South Carolina. It is also common throughout southern Canada, Central America and South America.
Impacts to the Aquatic Ecosystem
Curly-leaf pondweed does have value to lakes and ponds by growing through the cooler times of the year when most plants are absent. This provides a source of food and habitat during these times for fish and wildlife (Swistock, 2008). However, this is a very invasive plant that tends to crowd out native submerged plants, reducing biodiversity, and can force wildlife to relocate or perish. It can grow to nuisance levels creating mats that interfere with aquatic, recreational and fishing activities. When curly-leaf pondweed dies back in the summer, the dense mats decay releasing nutrients into the water column which contribute to algal blooms. The decomposing plant material can also deplete oxygen levels in the water, causing anoxic conditions leading to possible fish kills.
Prevention and Control
Protecting water quality can help control overabundant aquatic plants and is best accomplished by limiting, reducing or redirecting the input of external nutrients (primarily nitrogen and phosphorous) into waterways. Potential nutrient sources include runoff from lawns and golf courses, barnyards, fertilized fields, waste from livestock, pets and wildlife, and poorly functioning septic systems. Reductions can be achieved by planting low maintenance lawns, applying less fertilizer near waterways, using phosphorous free fertilizer, maintaining vegetated riparian buffers to absorb nutrients, increasing bank stability to reduce soil erosion, and maintaining proper aeration and good water flow. Not addressing the nutrient issues will lead to a perpetual need to control plant growth. The two challenges of curly-leaf pondweed control include minimizing damage to native plants and to produce a long term control. The key to control is the reduction or removal of turions to interrupt the curly-leaf pondweed life cycle.
To help stop the spread of aquatic invasive plants including curly-leaf pondweed, some steps to be followed include:
Remove all plant fragments from the boat, propeller and boat trailer to prevent introduction into new lakes and rivers.
Rinse mud and debris from equipment and wading gear and drain all water from boat before leaving access area.
Allow all equipment to dry for at least five days before transporting it to a new water body.
Do not release aquarium, or water garden plants into the wild; seal them in a plastic bag and dispose in trash.
Mechanical removal can help to manage curly-leaf pondweed by reducing biomass, but harvesting methods are not species specific. Hand pulling is a more selective method but is very time consuming and labor intensive. Early season removal using weed harvesters, raking and hand cutting is best done in spring before seeds appear above the water. Plants should be removed as close to the sediment as possible to reduce turion production. All fragments need to be removed from the body of water to be effective. Harvested plants should be disposed of away from the water’s edge so wind or runoff cannot transport the seeds, plants, or turions back into the water body. Other physical controls include bottom barriers preventing growth, and fall/winter lake water level lowering to expose rhizomes and turions to freezing temperatures and desiccation (Madsen, 2007). Physical control can be very effective on small ponds, along with reducing nutrients.
Triploid sterile Grass Carp (White Amur) are herbivores that will consume and control curly-leaf pondweed as it is a preferred food. In New Jersey, these fish may be purchased from a State approved hatchery after applying for/and receiving the appropriate state permits. Contact: New Jersey Division of Fish and Wildlife, Bureau of Freshwater Fisheries: state.nj.us/dep/fgw/fishperms.htm#stocking.
The nuisance plant must be properly identified. Most herbicides control only certain plants and types as indicated on the product label. You should contact a certified herbicide applicator to determine the appropriate method.
Consider the use of the waterway to be treated. Most herbicides restrict the use of the water until the herbicide has been degraded, inactivated or dissipated.
New Jersey DEP administers the regulations regarding application of chemicals to waterways in New Jersey. Applications require a permit and certified applicator.
Calculation of water area/volume to be treated is needed for proper dosage.
Method of application may affect choice if a certain type of equipment is needed for treatment to be effective.
Timing is important when deciding which herbicide to use. For curly-leaf pondweed it is best to treat in late winter or early spring when the plants are actively growing, but before they create a dense mass. This will reduce the amount of algae needed to be killed and reduce the chance of fish kills due to low dissolved oxygen caused by decaying plants.
Temperature affects the efficacy of some herbicides. Application should be when plants are actively growing with a compatible temperature. Label recommendations should be followed.
March and April treatments using contact herbicides with active ingredients of diquat or endothall have shown positive effects in reducing curly-leaf pondweed biomass as well as suppressing turion production (Poovey, et al., 2002). Whole pond treatments with fluridone, a systemic herbicide can also be used. Potential problems in controlling curly-leaf pondweed include a lag time between initial treatment and plant die-off, regrowth the following year and removal of beneficial native plants. Because the turions are extremely hardy and can lie dormant for years, control is often necessary every year or multiple times a year.
References and Resources
(APIS) Aquatic Plant Management Information System. 2012. U.S. Army Corp of Engineers, Engineer Research and Development Center. Potamogeton crispus L. (Curly-leaf Pondweed). el.erdc.usace.army.mil/apis/PlantInfo/plantinfo.aspx?plantid=49.
Bormans, S. 1995. Curly-leaf Pondweed. University of Wisconsin Extension. Lake tides 20(1) pp. 5–6
DiTomaso, J.M., G.B. Kayser et al. 2013 Weed Control in Natural Areas in the Western United States. Weed Research and Information Center, University of California. 544pp.
Hart, Steven A. 2001. Aquatic Weed Control. Rutgers Cooperative Extension, Fact Sheet, FS386. New Brunswick, NJ. njaes.rutgers.edu/pubs/publication.asp?pid=FS386.
(IDNR) Indiana Department of Natural Resources, Aquatic Invasive Species – Plants. 2009. Curly-leaf pondweed. in.gov/dnr/files/CURLYLEAF_PONDWEED.pdf (PDF).
Madsen, J. D. 2007. Curly-leaf Pondweed (Potamogeton crispus L.) Description, Distribution and Management. Mississippi State University, GRI Publication 5021. gri.msstate.edu/research/invspec/factsheets/4P/Curlyleaf_pondweed.pdf (PDF).
Poovey, A. G., J. G. Skogerboe and C. S. Owens. 2002. “Spring Treatments of Diquat and Endothall for Curly-leaf Pondweed Control”. Journal of Aquatic Plant Management 40: 63–67. apms.org/japm/vol40/v40p63.pdf (PDF).
Swistock, B.A. 2008. Curly-leaf Pondweed. Pond Facts # 17. Penn State University Cooperative Extension. School of Forest Resources. pubs.cas.psu.edu/FreePubs/pdfs/XH0025.pdf (PDF).
Stop Aquatic Hitchhikers! website. Aquatic Nuisance Species (ANS) Task Force, U.S Fish & Wildlife Service and U.S. Coast Guard. protectyourwaters.net/prevention.
Rizzo, D., S. Boser, and B. Swistock. 2009. A Field Guide to Common Aquatic Plants of Pennsylvania. Ag Communications and Marketing, Penn State College of Agricultural Science. 105pp. pubs.cas.psu.edu/FreePubs/pdfs/agrs110.pdf (PDF).
Robinson, M. 2002. Curly-leaved Pondweed: An Invasive Aquatic Plant (Potamogeton crispus). Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation, Office of Water Resources, Lakes and Ponds Program. mass.gov/eea/docs/dcr/watersupply/lakepond/factsheet/curly-leaved-pondweed.pdf (PDF).
University of Florida Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants. 2013. Curly pondweed. plants.ifas.ufl.edu/node/338.
Rutgers Executive Dean of Agriculture and Natural Resources School of Environmental and Biological Sciences
Search This Site:
Make a Gift
Copyright © 2017 Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, an equal opportunity, affirmative action institution. | Employment Opportunities
New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station · 88 Lipman Drive · New Brunswick, NJ 08901-8525
Webmaster | Site Map | Español
THE DNR FOR MASSACHUSETTS RECOMMENDS HANDPULLING, DRAWDOWNS, AND HERBICIDES FOR THE CONTROL OF CURLY LEAF PONDWEED.
TO OBTAIN THIS REPORT, CLICK BELOW:
One of more than 20 pondweed species (Potamogetons) that occur in Pennsylvania, this invasive plant from Europe frequently grows to nuisance levels in ponds.
Save For Later Print
ArticlesUpdated: December 6, 2017
Has a very distinctive appearance with crinkled leaves that alternate along the stem. Edges of leaves are also finely toothed.
Common in ponds with hard, nutrient-rich water.
Tolerant of low light conditions, often found in deeper water than many other aquatic plants.
Plant dies in July and seeds drop to bottom sediment.
Seeds germinate in fall, producing plants with winter foliage that remain green throughout the winter.
In spring, long flower spikes often stick up above the water surface. As the pond water warms in the spring, the classic, wavy-leafed summer plants begin to grow until they die in July.
Value and Concern to the Pond
Curly-leaf pondweed provides value to the pond because it grows through the winter and spring when most plants are absent from the pond. Thus, it provides a source of food and habitat during these times
This invasive plant tends to crowd out native submerged plant species and can grow to nuisance levels.
Overabundant growth is a symptom of excessive nutrients (phosphorus and nitrogen) in the pond water.
These nutrients may come from barnyards, crop fields, septic systems, lawns, and golf courses.
Control of overabundant aquatic plants is best accomplished by reducing or redirecting nutrient sources from the pond by reducing fertilizer applications near the pond, maintaining septic systems properly, redirecting nutrient rich runoff away from the pond, and maintaining vegetative buffer strips around your pond.
If you fail to address the underlying nutrient causes of aquatic plant growth you will probably encounter a perpetual need to control overabundant plant growth
Can be removed by raking or cutting, especially in the spring before seeds appear above the water.
Plants removed from the pond should be disposed of away from the pond edge so that wind or runoff cannot transport the plant or seeds back into the pond. Physical control can be very effective on small ponds and is especially attractive because it also removes the nutrients
Grass carp can be used to control curly-leaf pondweed because it is one of their preferred foods.
Grass carp must be purchased from an approved hatchery after receiving a state permit.
Consult the grass carp fact sheet availablefrom your local Pa. Fish and Boat Commission office or online at the Penn State Extension website.
There are numerous aquatic herbicides that are effective in controlling curly-leaf pondweed. You can learn more about these herbicides and their use in Management of Aquatic Plants. Here are some tips to properly using an aquatic herbicide to control curly-leaf pondweed:
Keep in mind that chemical control is often necessary every year or even multiple times during a year.
Make sure that you positively identify the plant in your pond as curly-leaf pondweed before proceeding.
Carefully measure the pond area and/or volume to determine the amount of herbicide needed. Consult the fact sheet entitled Pond Facts 4: Measuring Pond Area and Volume for more information.
Before applying a herbicide to your pond, you must obtain a state permit from the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection. The two-page application form and instructions for this permit are online at Application for Use of an Algaecide, Herbicide, or Fish Control Chemical in Waters of the Commonwealth.
Aquatic herbicides can be purchased from some home and farm supply stores, hardware stores, or various online suppliers. Costs can range from less than $100 to more than $1,000 to treat a one-acre pond.
Follow the herbicide label carefully for specific instructions on when and how to apply the chemical.
Herbicide treatments should be done early in the growing season before the plants cover a large portion of the pond. Treatment of severe infestations may cause a fish kill due to reduced dissolved oxygen.
For further information and publications on pond management visit the Penn State Extension website or contact your local extension office.