THE ATTACHED ARTICLE CLEARLY DESCRIBES HOW LAKE AERATION WORKS. TO VIEW THE ARTICLE PLEASE CLICK ON BELOW:
THE ATTACHED ARTICLE CLEARLY DESCRIBES HOW LAKE AERATION WORKS. TO VIEW THE ARTICLE PLEASE CLICK ON BELOW:
What is the difference between adding bacteria and adding enzymes? | Pond & Lakes Q & A
Posted on February 18, 2011 by thepondguy
What is the difference between adding bacteria and adding enzymes?
Mario – Albany, NY
When searching for natural water treatments for your pond and lake you may have noticed products advertising beneficial bacteria and some labeled as enzymes, both claiming to produce the same results, a reduction in muck! So just what is the difference between adding bacteria and adding an enzyme?
Bacteria are commonly associated with illness or filth and many people wonder why pond owners are crazy enough to want to add bacteria to our ponds. Bacteria come in a wide variety of flavors and they each have their own unique agenda. Aerobic bacteria used in natural pond treatments like Pond Logic® PondClear™and MuckAway™ are the powerhouses behind digesting and removing the organic debris that muck up your pond. While they have little interest in you or your pets, they thrive on material like decomposing plant matter and fish waste, breaking it down into nothing but a natural odorless gas byproduct.
There is always a trace of beneficial bacteria in a natural pond ecosystem. However, there are typically more types of organic waste being introduced to your pond via plants, fish, wildlife and runoff than there are bacteria to digest it. It is this imbalance that causes organic waste to accumulate over time. Applying beneficial bacteria treatments to your pond is a natural way to keep your pond balanced and clean. Enzymes are the catalyst which allows bacteria to break down and digest the debris in your pond. While they don’t actually eradicate waste material from your pond on their own, they take some of the work load off of your bacteria’s proverbial shoulders by saving them the time of having to “prepare” their meal. As beneficial aerobic bacteria are actually capable of creating these enzymes on their own, products that consist of only enzymes can be considered a support tool to help enhance pre-existing pond bacteria, however they will not directly decompose the accumulated muck in your pond.
Adding natural water treatments that contain beneficial aerobic bacteria can keep your pond healthy, balanced and clean throughout the season. Running an aeration system in tandem with your bacteria treatments infuses your pond with oxygen, which is prized by your fish and aerobic bacteria. Maintaining your pond with aeration and natural water treatments that contain natural bacteria is considered a proactive treatment that will provide a quicker path to desired results of a clean and healthy pond.
For this technique to work, the lake needs aeration to supply the oxygen at the lake bottom.
Every lake is unique. Specific strategies to address a lake’s nutrient enrichment problems must focus on activities in the watershed and, if needed, in-lake restoration techniques. Lake management approaches fall into two categories, the “quick-fix” and long-term management. The quick-fix offers a short-term solution such as the application of algaecides to kill unwanted algae. This approach treats the biological symptoms of a lake problem but does not address the underlying causes of these symptoms.
Long-term management considers the environmental, cultural, and biological factors affecting the lake and sets a priority on finding lasting solutions. Lake management is complicated and requires a coordinated effort of community groups, individuals, landowners, and government. To be effective, lake managers must commit to long-term strategies and investment.
The role of nutrients
Phosphorus generally limits the growth of freshwater algae in most Washington lakes, although nitrogen is also an important nutrient. When phosphorus is the limiting nutrient, there is a direct relationship between the amount of phosphorus in a lake and the amount of algae growing in the lake. As phosphorus levels increase, the amount of algae increases too. At very high levels of phosphorus, other nutrients or light may limit the growth of algae. Long-term management of excessive algae requires the removal of phosphorus sources to the water body. Reducing phosphorus inputs to lakes can affect the amount of algae in the lake by removing a key nutrient.
Reducing external nutrient sources
External nutrient sources such as fertilizer use, pet wastes, stormwater runoff, septic system effluents, waterfowl, agriculture, and even rainfall can contribute nutrients to a lake. Lake management removes or modifies as many of these nutrient sources as possible, especially those sources shown to be contributing the greatest nutrient load to the water body. If in-lake restoration techniques are necessary, they should be followed by, or occur simultaneously with appropriate long-term management actions to control sediments, nutrients, and toxic inputs. A successful lake restoration program should strive to manage both external and internal nutrient sources.
In-lake restoration techniques
Controlling nutrient sources will not improve lake water quality immediately in many cases. Years may pass before lakes cleanse themselves of accumulated nutrient loads. For this reason, in-lake restoration techniques have been developed to accelerate recovery. These techniques may not be suitable for all lakes and all conditions. Consider using these techniques only after a lake specialist has evaluated the lake and recommended one or more of these options.
This website provides a quick overview of some common in-lake techniques. Please refer to the third edition of Restoration and Management of Lakes and Reservoirs, authored by G. Dennis Cooke, Eugene B. Welch, Spencer A. Peterson, and Stanley A. Nichols, 2005, for a comprehensive and scientific discussion of these and other lake management methods.
Oxygen (or air) is pumped into the deep, often nutrient-enriched, oxygen-depleted layer that forms in deeper lakes called the hypolimnion (see the illustration of the cross section of lake water layers to the right). The goal of hypolimnetic aeration is to maintain oxygen in this layer to limit phosphorus release from sediments without causing the water layers to mix (destratify).
Hypolimnetic aeration increases habitat and food supply by providing more oxygenated waters. On the down-side, hypolimnetic aerators are expensive to operate. It may be difficult to supply adequate oxygen to the hypolimnion without destratification and subsequent algal blooms. This technique is suitable for deep lakes with an oxygen-deficient hypolimnion.
Some lake managers use siphons to remove nutrient rich water from the hypolimnium. This reduces nutrients and eliminates some of the low oxygen water. Hypolimnetic withdrawal is suitable for small, deep lakes with oxygen-poor or nutrient-rich bottom water. This technique can have severe repercussions on downstream receiving waters which receive nutrient-enriched waters.
Artificial circulation (aeration)
Artificial circulation provides increased aeration and oxygen to a lake by circulating the water to expose more of it to the atmosphere. Aeration systems are generally used in shallow water bodies. A number of artificial circulation systems can provide aeration including surface spray (fountains), paddlewheels, and air diffusers. Artificial circulation disrupts or prevents stratification and increases aerobic habitat. The effect of aeration on algae varies. Aeration does not necessarily decrease algal biomass, but may lead to less cyanobacteria (blue-green algae). Some cyanobacteria have gas vacuoles which allow them to regulate their position in the water column. By circulating the water, cyanobacteria may spend more of their time in the dark, reducing their competitive advantage over other kinds of algae. Internal loading of phosphorous may also decline if sediments remain oxygenated. When lake sediments lack oxygen, conditions exist to release phosphorus into the water.
Dilution projects direct a low-nutrient water source into and through a lake as a means of diluting and flushing nutrients from the higher-nutrient lake water. Flushing may wash out surface algae and replace higher-nutrient lake water with lower-nutrient dilution water. Lower-nutrient water may lead to fewer problem algae in the water. On the downside, dilution requires large volumes of low-nutrient water (which may be scarce or expensive) and does not eliminate sources of phosphorous from the sediments or the watershed. Green Lake in Seattle and Moses Lake in Grant County are examples of Washington lakes where dilution has been successfully used.
Drainage channels or pipes are used to divert nutrient-rich waters to the downstream side of lakes. In some lakes, like Lake Washington in Seattle, nutrient diversion meant diverting sewage from this lake. Depending on the project, major engineering may be required at great expense and other receiving waters may be affected by the nutrient-rich water. Diverting streams also eliminates a water supply to the lake and may interfere with fish runs.
Heavy equipment or specialized hydraulic dredges can remove accumulated lake sediments to increase depth and to eliminate nutrient-rich sediments. Dredging may control rooted aquatic vegetation, deepen the water body, and increase lake volume. By removing nutrient-rich sediment, dredging may improve water quality. Some dredging drawbacks include resuspension of sediments during the dredging operation and the temporary destruction of habitat. Large-scale dredging is extremely expensive due to equipment costs, permitting issues, and spoils disposal. Because of costs, dredging is typically done on a limited scale. Vancouver Lake in Washington was dredged in the early 1980’s to help improve water quality. Although many shallow lakes may benefit from this method, dredging’s great expense limits its widespread use in most water bodies.
Aluminum, iron, or calcium salts can inactivate phosphorus in lake sediments. Lake projects typically use aluminum sulfate (alum) to inactivate phosphorus. Alum may also be applied in small doses for precipitation of water column phosphorus. When applied to water, alum forms a fluffy aluminum hydroxide precipitate called a floc. As the floc settles, it removes phosphorus and particulates (including algae) from the water column (precipitation). The floc settles on the sediment where it forms a layer that acts as barrier to phosphorus. Phosphorus,released from the sediments, combines with the alum and is not released into the water to fuel algae blooms (inactivation). Algal levels decline after alum treatment because phosphorus levels in the water are reduced.
The length of treatment effectiveness varies with the amount of alum applied and the depth of the lake. Alum treatment in shallow lakes for phosphorus inactivation may last for eight or more years. In deeper lakes, alum treatment may last far longer. Long Lake in Kitsap County and Green Lake in Seattle provide examples of recent successful use. Click here to read an alum report from Green Lake.
Some lake managers use alum to precipitate phosphorus from the water column by continuously injecting small amounts of alum during the summer months (micro-floc alum injection). The hypolimnetic aerator in Newman Lake, Washington, injects small amounts of alum into the water as it operates to provide additional management of phosphorus. Read more about beautiful Newman Lake (seen in the photograph) at this website. The photograph was used with the permission of the Newman Lake Flood Control Zone District.
This study in Minnesota shows that aeration does not reduce lake muck. We will report on all studies which show both positive and negative results to help members understand all alternatives.
To view this study, please click below:
THIS IS A STUDY OF LAKE AND POND MUCK CONTROL IN WISCONSIN. NOTE THE REDUCTION IN MUCK AS WELL AS NUTRIENTS. TO VIEW THE REPORT, PLEASE CLICK BELOW:
THIS STUDY SHOWS THE SUCCESSFUL REDUCTION OF LAKE MUCK WITH AN AERATION SYSTEM. TO VIEW THE STUDY, PLEASE CLICK BELOW:
Aerobic Bacteria: Nature’s Rapid Muck Digesters
Deepen Your Lake Without Dredging
Home / Aerobic Bacteria: Nature’s Rapid Muck Digesters
Aerobic Bacteria: Nature’s Rapid Muck Digesters
Posted on: 03-22-2013 by: jtucci
Get Rid of the Compost Pile at the Bottom of Your Lake
The “muck” that accumulates at the lake-bottom is organic compost that cannot be broken down fast enough. This is a sign that your lake is overloaded with nutrients and simply can’t keep up with the amount of decaying weeds, algae, leaves, feces and other organic material piling up on the bottom every year.
Muck is a sign that your lake is severely out of balance. The first step in restoring that balance is to increase dissolved oxygen in the water column and to the “compost pile” at the bottom. The second step is to biologically accelerate the healthy (and normal) decomposition of the muck.
Nature again provides the answer in the form of beneficial aerobic bacteria that can literally eat the muck and convert it into more bacteria, carbon dioxide and water. These bacteria are then eaten by other micro-organisms and insects which, in-turn, are eaten by fish.
This is a healthy natural process that can deliver results quickly. We are consistently reducing lake-bottom muck by one foot per season by unleashing these powerful “bottom-cleaners” in combination with Lake Bottom Aeration. The end result is a clean lake-bottom and bigger healthier fish!
“Good” Bacteria Versus “Bad” Bacteria
There are essentially two ways that a lake digests the organic muck coating the bottom – aerobic digestion and anaerobic digestion. Aerobic digestion is fast and it’s good for the lake. Anaerobic digestion is not only bad for the lake; it’s harmful to fish and other beneficial organisms and potentially harmful to humans.
Oxygen makes a rapid muck reduction possible.
When there is sufficient oxygen at the bottom of the lake, aerobic bacteria and other microorganisms that feed on organic muck thrive. In fact, oxygenating the lake-bottom binds up to 97% of the phosphorus and nitrogen in the water to the bottom sediment where it becomes food for beneficial, muck consuming bacteria and insects. Without oxygen these beneficial organisms can’t survive to do the work of rapid muck reduction. This is why Lake Bottom Aeration is the critical first step in reviving your lake.
We accelerate the lake’s natural muck digestion process by adding aerobic bacteria which immediately and exponentially increases their population on the bottom of the lake.
Once the population of aerobic bacteria is boosted and supported by Lake Bottom Aeration, we make it easier for them to digest/metabolize phosphorous and nitrogen by adding vegetable-based enzymes which soften/break down the tough cellular walls of dead organic matter. In fact, we put aerobic digestion of muck – and the reduction of phosphorous and nitrogen which fuel weed and algae growth – into hyperdrive.
Our Rapid Muck Reduction Bio-Augmentation Products
Clean & Clear Concentrated Enzymes™
Clean & Clear Concentrated Enzymes is a special blend of non-toxic vegetable enzymes from nature that acts as a catalyst to biodegrade non-living organic matter and reduce available nutrients in the water, thus improving water quality. Clean & Clear softens the cell walls of dead organic matter making it easier for beneficial bacteria to feed. In essence, these enzymes give the bacteria a “jump start” in digesting lake-bottom muck. Clean & Clear also reduces odor caused by toxic gases from pathogenic (disease-type) bacteria, including hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, amines and mercaptans. Clean & Clear provides the following benefits:
Accelerates bio-degradation of organic matter
Helps beneficial aerobic bacteria compete with anaerobic bacteria, thereby reducing phosphorus and nitrogen which fuel weed and algae growth. Helps liquefy organic waste.
Improves water quality
Reduces odors, including animal manure odors; improves air quality
Safe to use; no health problems
Safe in the environment; no pollution concerns
Safe around animals
Easy to apply economical to use
C-FLO Living Organisms
Description: C-FLO is a special formulation of beneficial microorganisms that feed on organic sediment (muck) at the bottom of ponds and lakes. These organisms are found in the woods feeding on dead leaves, bark, weeds and other dead matter. When you walk through the woods, you step on as many as 300,000,000 of these tiny organisms with every step. C-FLO is comprised of healthful organisms that are natural food for aquatic insects. C-FLO multiplies as it feeds on organic sediment, and insects grow and multiply as they feed on C-FLO. Fish then feed on the insects and grow rapidly.
What C-FLO does: C-FLO feeds on bottom organic muck, ooze, and peat, digesting and converting it to carbon dioxide and water. As C-FLO feeds on bottom muck, the lake will deepen, creating a better environment for fish, and less opportunity for weeds to grow. Cattails and lilies will gradually disappear. This process replaces dredging the organic material at a tiny fraction of the cost. C-FLO is harmless to fish, wildlife, pets, humans, and the environment when used as directed. As mentioned above, the sediment decomposition process is accelerated by the addition of oxygen breathing microorganisms. These organisms have been exempted from the need to be registered for use in lakes by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency because of their beneficial and harmless nature.
Where it can be used: C-FLO will only work in ponds and lakes that are continuously oxygenated and rid of hydrogen sulfide (rotten egg smell when the bottom is stirred up). If oxygen runs out or hydrogen sulfide rises for even a few days, the organisms may die and your pond or lake will need a new application. Therefore, for best results C-FLO should be used with Clean & Clear Concentrated Enzymes and Lake Bottom Aeration.
Lack of Oxygen Produces “Bad” Bacteria that can Kill Your Lake
When the bottom of the lake is layered with dead organic matter (muck) and weeds and algae choke the surface of the lake, it means there is not enough oxygen on the lake-bottom to sustain a thriving and productive population of aerobic bacteria. In fact, when oxygen is absent, anaerobic bacteria take over.
Anaerobic bacterial digestion breaks down organic matter much slower and produces acids which not only decrease water quality, but also cause a massive release of phosphorus and nitrogen from the organic sediment – the two major nutrients which fuel excess weed and algae growth. Anaerobic bacteria also produce toxic gases such as ammonia, methane, and hydrogen sulfide (the rotten egg smell).
If your lake-bottom sediment smells like rotten eggs or “swamp gas” it’s a sure sign anaerobic bacterial digestion is at work. Worse, anaerobic bacteria include pathogenic (disease-producing) bacteria. These diseases include cholera, scabies, typhoid, shigella, salmonella, botulism and miscellaneous bacteria that cause infectious boils and sores.
updated 9/28/2007 2:36:21 PM ET
PHOENIX — It sounds like science fiction but it’s true: A killer amoeba living in lakes enters the body through the nose and attacks the brain where it feeds until you die.
Don’t miss these Health stories
can you buy Lyrica at walmart Even though encounters with the microscopic bug are extraordinarily rare, it’s killed six boys and young men this year. The spike in cases has health officials concerned, and they are predicting more cases in the future.
“This is definitely something we need to track,” said Michael Beach, a specialist in recreational waterborne illnesses for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
“This is a heat-loving amoeba. As water temperatures go up, it does better,” Beach said. “In future decades, as temperatures rise, we’d expect to see more cases.”
According to the CDC, the amoeba called Naegleria fowleri (nuh-GLEER-ee-uh FOWL’-erh-eye) killed 23 people in the United States, from 1995 to 2004. This year health officials noticed a spike with six cases — three in Florida, two in Texas and one in Arizona. The CDC knows of only several hundred cases worldwide since its discovery in Australia in the 1960s.
In Arizona, David Evans said nobody knew his son, Aaron, was infected with the amoeba until after the 14-year-old died on Sept. 17. At first, the teen seemed to be suffering from nothing more than a headache.
“We didn’t know,” Evans said. “And here I am: I come home and I’m burying him.”
After doing more tests, doctors said Aaron probably picked up the amoeba a week before while swimming in the balmy shallows of Lake Havasu, a popular man-made lake on the Colorado River between Arizona and California.
orlistat shortage 2012 Though infections tend to be found in southern states, Naegleria lives almost everywhere in lakes, hot springs, even dirty swimming pools, grazing off algae and bacteria in the sediment.
http://rstthermal.com/files/pdf/niles-large-solar-/ Beach said people become infected when they wade through shallow water and stir up the bottom. If someone allows water to shoot up the nose — say, by doing a somersault in chest-deep water — the amoeba can latch onto the olfactory nerve.
The amoeba destroys tissue as it makes its way up into the brain, where it continues the damage, “basically feeding on the brain cells,” Beach said.
People who are infected tend to complain of a stiff neck, headaches and fevers. In the later stages, they’ll show signs of brain damage such as hallucinations and behavioral changes, he said.
Once infected, most people have little chance of survival. Some drugs have stopped the amoeba in lab experiments, but people who have been attacked rarely survive, Beach said.
“Usually, from initial exposure it’s fatal within two weeks,” he said.
Researchers still have much to learn about Naegleria. They don’t know why, for example, children are more likely to be infected, and boys are more often victims than girls.
“Boys tend to have more boisterous activities (in water), but we’re not clear,” Beach said.
In central Florida, authorities started an amoeba phone hotline advising people to avoid warm, standing water and areas with algae blooms. Texas health officials also have issued warnings.
People “seem to think that everything can be made safe, including any river, any creek, but that’s just not the case,” said Doug McBride, a spokesman for the Texas Department of State Health Services.
Officials in the town of Lake Havasu City are discussing whether to take action. “Some folks think we should be putting up signs. Some people think we should close the lake,” city spokesman Charlie Cassens said.
Beach cautioned that people shouldn’t panic about the dangers of the brain-eating bug. Cases are still extremely rare considering the number of people swimming in lakes. The easiest way to prevent infection, Beach said, is to use nose clips when swimming or diving in fresh water.
“You’d have to have water going way up in your nose to begin with” to be infected, he said.
David Evans has tried to learn as much as possible about the amoeba over the past month. But it still doesn’t make much sense to him. His family had gone to Lake Havasu countless times. Have people always been in danger? Did city officials know about the amoeba? Can they do anything to kill them off?
Evans lives within eyesight of the lake. Temperatures hover in the triple digits all summer, and like almost everyone else in this desert region, the Evanses look to the lake to cool off.
It was on David Evans’ birthday Sept. 8 that he brought Aaron, his other two children, and his parents to Lake Havasu. They ate sandwiches and spent a few hours splashing around.
“For a week, everything was fine,” Evans said.
Then Aaron got the headache that wouldn’t go away. At the hospital, doctors first suspected meningitis. Aaron was rushed to another hospital in Las Vegas.
“He asked me at one time, ’Can I die from this?”’ David Evans said. “We said, ’No, no.”’
On Sept. 17, Aaron stopped breathing as his father held him in his arms.
“He was brain dead,” Evans said. Only later did doctors and the CDC determine that the boy had been infected with Naegleria.
“My kids won’t ever swim on Lake Havasu again,” he said.
Home / Northern Michigan Lake Opts for Innovative Eco-Friendly Lake Management Plan
Northern Michigan Lake Opts for Innovative Eco-Friendly Lake Management Plan
Posted on: 08-12-2012 by: jtucci
Carp Lake, Michigan (PRWEB) September 06, 2012
BY: Elaine Bostwick
Paradise Lake Improvement Board
Where is Paradise Lake? This 1900 acre body of water is nearly at the northern most tip of the lower peninsula in Michigan within Carp Lake and Hebron Townships but this detail is not nearly as important as its small community’s big “green” plans.
Eurasian Watermilfoil (EWM), a common and widely disseminated invasive weed, has taken up residence in its waters and local residents have some unique plans to battle the invasion. While a majority of lakes today are utilizing popular chemicals to manage their invasive weeds, the Paradise Lake Improvement Board (PLIB) has opted on an environmentally friendly treatment that has local residents abuzz with excitement.
After much contemplation, the PLIB opted for an innovative means of invasive weed treatment called Laminar Flow Aeration (via a pilot project in the west bay) and a concentrated weevil stocking program elsewhere in the lake. “We really wanted to go with a long term treatment option that was ecologically conscientious”, cited Board member Elaine Bostwick, “it was a difficult decision but we believe we have made a responsible choice and in less than one season, we are already seeing very promising results”.
Lake Bottom Aeration is a system-driven process developed by Lake Savers and AerationTech, LLC to duplicate natural spring and fall turnover of a water body. John Tucci, president of Lake Savers LLC, installed the aeration equipment and accompanying bacterial enzymes in Paradise Lake in consultation with Jennifer Jermalowicz-Jones of Lakeshore Environmental Inc; the PLIB’s chosen Lake Management Consultant. Explaining how the system works, Tucci had this to say, “The Laminar Flow Aeration System continuously delivers highly oxygenated water to the sediment “compost pile” at the lake bottom. When used in combination with beneficial bacteria and enzyme treatments, this technology converts and reduces the nutrients in the lake sediments making them unavailable to weeds and algae”. Eurasian Watermilfoil is especially sensitive to this methodology because of its shallow root system. Currently, residents are reporting EWM plants, with their root systems attached, appearing on the shoreline. This indicates that the plants are being “starved” and are releasing from the lake bottoms already.
The residents of this “Mayberry” type community are not strangers to pioneering efforts in lake management either. In 1998, Paradise Lake was the first lake in Michigan to utilize the native North American weevil as a means for treatment. When stocked in the correct quantity and configuration, this miniscule insect has been shown to be an effective biocontrol agent; inflicting damage to the stem and root biomass of EWM. Based on the positive results of a June 2012 survey completed by Lakeshore Environmental, the PLIB has unanimously voted to continue with weevil stocking in the 2013 season and a new survey will be conducted in October 2012 to officially formalize the efficacy of the aeration system. The results will be found on the Board’s website: http://www.paradiselakeimprovementboard.com.
Paradise Lake is also the proud recipient of a Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI) competitive invasive species prevention grant that will fund the construction of a new boat wash station at the public access on Paradise Trail. These grant funds were awarded through the hard work of Kira Davis with the Little Traverse Bay Bands of Odawa Indians and partners: Michigan Department of Natural Resources and the PLIB. This new proactive measure will undoubtedly hinder the introduction of any further invasive weeds or entities into the lake as well as protect other bodies of water from Paradise Lake’s existing EWM. The groundbreaking ceremony is to be determined.
As a result of this community’s ongoing and original efforts to heal their lake using an inspired, sustainable and ecologically responsible approach, a local saying has never been truer: “Although there are no carp in Paradise Lake, there is paradise in Carp Lake”.
This you tube video report is on the success of controlling Eurasian milfoil, muck, and pondweed at Ft. Collins lake, a 225 acre lake in Colorado.
Please click on below to view this youtube video: